Zetec / Zetec-E
In 1991, the first Escort model was equipped with the Zetec engine assembled at the Bridgend plant in Wales, direct descendants of which were produced until the mid-2000s. This engine is still considered a very successful development, and in those years, it was revolutionary for Ford. Half a billion pounds have been invested in its development and production – no kidding! By the way, the original name of the engine was not Zetec, but Zeta, and it had to be changed because of a legal conflict with Lancia, which owned the rights to this name among other letters of the Greek alphabet. It arose at the design stage, when several competing designs of the new multi-valve head have been assigned these very Greek codes – and the winning project in the competition under that letter. This motor had a cast-iron block with dry liners, allowing for reboring; an aluminum crankcase pan; an aluminum head; two camshafts driven by a single belt; and hydro-compensators in the valve train. Produced in 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 versions, and fitted to Mondeo 1 and 2, Escort (1.6 and 1.8 only), and Fiesta XR2i (1.8 only). Practically no bad decisions and weaknesses of the engine did not show, even at severe overheating its aluminum head did not crack, but only bent, but because of the hydraulic pushers was demanding to oil. This point, it is believed, was the main reason for the redesign of this motor in 1998. Hydraulic tappets were replaced by standard, the timing drive was slightly modified (in a more convenient way, then it became possible to change the pump on this motor without removing the timing belt), repair of the block was no longer provided, to reduce vibrations the crankcase pan was composite, and the valve cover – the main external feature – was plastic (instead of aluminum on the first version). The most common name of this motor, including in the Russian-speaking community of Ford enthusiasts and repairers – Zetec-E (although some foreign sources call it also Zetec-R). This motor was produced and put on the first generation Focuses until 2004 (in 1.8 and 2.0 volumes), as well as on the “heel” Transit/Tourneo Connect (only 1.8). Zetec-E 2.0 was also the basis for the charged 170 hp ST170/SVT engine.
The Zetec and Zetec-E motors had no other technical or market names, so confusion with them is almost impossible. The main thing is if your car belongs to the transition period (i.e. either Mondeo-2 or latest Escort), you need to know how to answer the question “what is your valve cover” – black plastic or unpainted aluminum since not everybody understands a difference between Zetec and Zetec-E as you do now. Sometimes you hear the names “first/early” and “second/late” for Zetec’s – as you can guess, those jargonize also refer to Zetec and Zetec-E.
Zetec-SE / Zetec-S / Sigma
In 1995, another engine with a very similar name appeared: Zetec-SE. And in this case, despite many apparent similarities (the appearance of the valve cover, high-voltage part, timing drive) – the name “Zetec” here is purely marketing because technically this motor has absolutely nothing in common with the “real Zetecs”, they even have the intake and exhaust manifolds are on different sides of the head. Mazda and Yamaha were actively involved in the development of this motor. The other name of this family of motors is Sigma (here, for some reason Lancia did not mind), and that is the only unique name for it. Later, these engines were called by another marketing name – Duratec, which was also given to a heap of other Ford (and not so much) engines, and that resulted in a mess of meanings, which we are trying to make sense of here. So, this family, in the beginning, was represented with 1.25 and 1.4 engines in the Fiesta, then in 1997, a version 1.7 for the Puma (it used a phasing unit on the intake camshaft, this modification was called Zetec-S, sometimes it is not quite correctly extended to the whole family), and by the beginning of production of the first Focus, the 1.6 version was made for it. In the mid-2000s, when all motors, including these, became Duratecs, Sigmas 1.25, 1.4, and 1.6 were put on the Fiesta/Fusion (actually, for these, they were pretty much the only gasoline motors in the range, 1. 25 was put only on the Fiesta); on Focus of all generations (on the first – only in Europe and without phase shifters, on the second – all variants, on the third – only 1.6, including the Ti-VCT version with phase shifters); and even on Mondeo-4 (only Ti-VCT). In fact, this family of motors is now the oldest and most massive in the Euro ford range.
To avoid introducing terminological confusion to people to whom you want to explain what motor you have, don’t call it a Duratek, whatever it says on the decorative cover under the hood and whatever others call it in front of you. Qualified people will understand you best if you use the name “Sigma” (it is often used in Ford’s technical documentation, and not only inside). It is also helpful, in the case of the 1.6, to know the power (100, 105, 110, 115, 120, or 125hp), as it is a determining point for identifying a particular version.
Split Port 2.0
The block of the first Zetec and the latest (at that time) CVs had obvious affinities. However, with the birth of the Zetec, and despite its success, the CVH didn’t die or leave the scene – all 90’s in the USA, first the 1.9 and then the 2.0 version was made. This 2.0 called CVH/SPI or Split Port, and we are interested in it because it was mounted on the American version of the first Focus, and many such cars were on the Russian aftermarket. Unfortunately, this engine has inherited a lot of generic plagues CVH and does not shine with much reliability or maintainability in our conditions because of the lack of spares.
There is no confusion with the name of the engine, it is known only as “Split Port”, however, confusion often occurs, when it is necessary to understand, which exactly two-liter engine is on American Focus: there are two ways for understanding it. Firstly, if you have only the car documents at hand, the indicated power (if it corresponds to reality, of course) 111 (sometimes 110) hp indicates Split-Port and 130 hp. – Zetec-E. Second, if you can open the hood, the aluminum valve cover with the big letters Split Port 2.0 gives the obvious answer, while the black plastic cover with the spark plug wells in the center means you’re a little luckier.
Duratec – everything else hiding under that name
With not quite clear marektologicheskogo purpose Ford began renaming all of their (and not only his!) Gasoline engines under this name, and by 2005, when production of the first Focus was discontinued, motors with other names left. As a result, Duratekam were both engines that had no other designations, as well as those that were under the renaming (like the above-mentioned Sigma).
Duratec-VE, SE, ST 2.5/3.0 V6
The ancestor of the name. The first Duratec 2.5 V6 24v engine appeared in 1994 on the Mondeo. Its origin is interesting because it is based on the development of Porsche, sold at the time to Ford. The notorious Cosworth has also taken part in the development of the heads. In 1996, a three-liter version was presented, but it was used at that time only on American models and Jaguar S-type. With the advent of the Mondeo-3 engine has undergone a slight upgrade (in particular, the volume was changed from “slightly more than 2.5” to “slightly less than 2.5” for obvious reasons) and was named Duratec-VE. The SE and ST indices got the three-liter engines, which finally began to be installed on the Mondeo, with 205hp and 220hp respectively (the latter was put on the ST220 modification).
The easiest way to unambiguously specify this motor is to call it a 2.5/3.0 V6. Nothing else like that Ford had from the mid-’90s to the present day.
The American version of the Mazda 6 3.0 GG was equipped with this engine.
This engine, which appeared together with the Mondeo-3 in 2001 under the internal designation MI4, was originally called Mazda MZR Series L. As it is easy to guess, this motor was developed by Mazda, Ford just uses it, although it is produced at its plant in Valencia and hangs its peripherals on it. The engine is all aluminum, the block has dry liners, the camshaft drive is a chain. The 1.8 and 2.0 versions appeared in the third Mondeo; the same (with a different, better, intake system) were used in the second Focus; 2.0 and 2.3 – in the fourth Mondeo and minivans S-Max/Galaxy on its platform.
By the ubiquitous irony of fate, it is this non-Ford motor that among Ford enthusiasts and repairers bears the nickname Duratek, coined by Ford and given to its entire range of engines. So in this particular case, when you call your motor by that name – you will surely be understood correctly!
It is these MZR/Duratec-HE series engines that were equipped with the Mazda 6 GG, in the Mazda 6 GH lineup the 2.3L motor was reworked to 2.5L. It was on the basis of the 2.3L engine that the MPS and CX7 series were launched (these engines were equipped with turbocharging and direct injection). Also on the basis of this engine was released a variant with direct injection this 2.0 MZR Disi (this motor was equipped with a European Mazda 6 GH, not supplied to Russia). Roadster MX5 was also equipped with 1.8 and 2.0 engines in this series giving 126 and 160 horsepower, respectively, these engines were slightly lightened with a shifted cutoff in a higher RPM zone
In fact, all versions of these engines (1.8, 2.0, 2.3) were the same engine with a different degree of factory boost. A feature of these engines Mazda in 2.0 and 2.3 versions is a phase shifter, and the intake manifold of a variable cross-section, the motor 2.3 (and later 2.5) was equipped with balancer shafts. In general, the modification of the motor data set (besides the volume), the main difference is the presence or absence of the phasing system (phase shifter S-VT), the presence or absence of the manifold variable section, and the degree of its modification (airflow direction changing valve TSCV, the system changes the length of air intake VIS), different engine management systems, as well as different attachments and different injection systems (distributed in most cases and direct in the case of 2.0 Disi). Hence the different power of 1.8L – 120 hp, 126 hp; 2.0L – 141 hp, 145 hp, 147 hp, 150 hp, 155 hp. 160hp, 2.3L – 166hp, 178hp, 2.5L – 170hp. Accordingly the configuration of engines, which are based on different Fords and Mazdas. As a rule, 1.8 motors had the simplest options for its complete sets, Mazda starting with restyling version GG had the maximum variant of this motor and continued to improve, as actually the options installed on the Mondeo, Focus in turn had simpler equipment.
Motor kits differed in the greater degree by nature, and not the maximum power ratings. Thus the engines of Mazda and Mondeo are more tractive and elastic. The 1.8, the pre-release GG 2.0 141 hp and the Focus have all had rougher and in some ways more nervous engines.
These motors were initially aggregated with Ford’s 4-speed transmission4F27E, later made on its basis by Mazda FNR5 (FS5A-EL). The Mazda MX5 was mated to a 6-speed automatic. Manual transmissions were used 5 and 6 speed.
These engines have proven to be fairly reliable during operation (lifetime declared at 350 thousand, in fact, with good service, could be much higher), the main drawback is allowable oil leakage (with the higher volume, the higher burning) and increased fuel consumption. On the 2.5L motor, these deficiencies have been solved in part. Turbo engines were largely factory tuning of atmospheric versions, whose main purpose was to create near-sports versions of their cars (and the true purpose of testing new developments, at the expense of buyers and increase buyer interest in the Mazda). The resource of turbo engines in this series is very low (about 150 thousandths).
On the basis of this motor was made turbo-diesel version 2.0 MRZ-CD (which has a modification 121 hp, 136 hp, 140 hp, 143 hp). The main difference between these modifications was the common rail fuel system, turbocharger, intake, and PDF filter.
Later the current series Skyactiv was presented on the basis of the MZR engines. These engines were redesigned almost 100% with direct injection and a significantly increased compression ratio.
In general the MZR/Duratec -HE series has been in production for about 15 years, which indicates that the engines were successful.
Duratec 8v (HCS 1.3 and RoCam 1.6)
These motors were named “Duratek” obviously “for the company” – they had nothing in common with the coming 21st century, they were obsolete models either from or for “third countries”. The first one is a descendant of the lower-shaft Kent engines from the mossy antiquity – the first Kent was on the 1959 Anglia model (the one Harry Potter and his redheaded buddy flew through the sky in the relevant movie). Of course, over forty years it has undergone many revisions, but the general essence remains the same. However, in the lower size and price segment, it remained in demand, so it was spread (in version 1.3) on the Fiestas of the ’90s, Ka, and the last Escorts of cheap versions. Its other name is Endura-E, and it is also a cause for confusion because the name Endura was used for Ford diesel of the same time interval.
The second one is a “creative reworking” of the late ’90s of the aforementioned Sigma from the Brazilian division of Ford, with an eye to the low cost of production and operation. A cast-iron 8-valve, chain-driven stock, named from the ROllifinger CAMshaft (roller-driven valve tappets). From sunny Brazil, this economic wonder has managed to seep not only on the Russian market, where it was installed on a cheap version of the first Focus instead of normal Sigmas but even in Europe, well-to-do, having made its home under the hood of the same Ka, where larger motors normally fit could not.
It is possible, of course, to call these motors “Durateks” – for fun – after some leading questions, it will be possible to understand the true essence of your unit. But more quickly you will be understood if you call HCS HCS-oh, and RoCam – RoCam-oh.
Duratec RS/I5 (Volvo 2.5T)
And the final member of our parade is the turbocharged 2.5 engine, which has nothing in common with the 2.5 V6, as it is borrowed from another, at that time owned by Ford, brand – Volvo. This engine also has a history – its direct ancestor is in-line five from the model 850 of the early 90s. In addition to the “extreme” version of the second Focus, the “RS” was used in Mondeo-4, SMax/Galaxy and Kuga-1.
In this case, the use of the name “Duratek” may strongly “confuse the investigation”, especially if the volume is mentioned, but without specifying the number of cylinders and the presence of a turbocharger. It is much easier to say “2.5 turbo” – and the interlocutor will have instant understanding: “ah, Volvo!” Or vice versa: “Volvo” – “ah, 2.5 turbo!”
Motors used on FORDs
Ka (1996-2008): 1.3 – HCS, 1.6 – RoCam
Fiesta (1995-2002): 1.3 – HCS, 1.25/1.4 – Sigma
Fiesta/Fusion (2002-): Sigma, except Duratec HE 2.0 on ST150 models
Focus I (1998-2004) European models: 1.4/1.6 – Sigma, 1.8/2.0 – Zetec-E
Focus I (1998-2004) Russian production: 1.6 – RoCam, 1.8/2.0 – Zetec-E
Focus I (1998-2004) American-made: 2.0 111hp – Split Port, 2.0 130hp. – Zetec-E
Focus II/C-Max (2005-2011): 1.4/1.6 – Sigma, 1.8/2.0 – Duratec-HE, 2.5T – Volvo
Mondeo II (1996-2000): 1.6/1.8/2.0 – Zetec (with aluminum valve cover), Zetec-E (with black plastic cover), 2.5 – 2.5 V6
Mondeo III (2001-2007): 1.8/2.0 – Duratec HE, 2.5/3.0 – 2.5/3.0 V6
Mondeo IV (2008-): 1.6 – Sigma, 2.0/2.3 – Duratec HE, 2.5T – Volvo
S-Max/Galaxy (2006-): 2.0/2.3 – Duratec HE, 2.5T – Volvo
Escape/Maverick (2001-2007): 2.0 – Zetec-E, 2.3 – Duratec-HE, 3.0 – 3.0 V6
The Ecoboost series engines (1.0, 1.6, 2.0, 3.5L) are Ford’s own independent project that has nothing to do with Mazda’s MZR Turbo and Volvo’s 2.5T and Skyactiv. But as with the Skyactiv engines, it has kinship and borrowed experience from the MZR and MZR Turbo series (since at the time Mazda was both the Lab for Mazda itself and for Ford). The main purpose of the Ecoboost is high performance/efficiency/environmental, the MZR Turbo is about sport, research, and marketing. The Skyactiv is one competitor to the Ecoboost, with the release of the Skyactiv Turbo version the competition will go to a new level.
(I’m not comparing the Ecoboost to the TFSI for one simple reason, the main purpose of the TFSI is to reduce Sibi production costs).